The government has yet to pay serious attention to policies and infrastructure in the culture sector as an integrated national development structure. In practice, arts and culture activities held by organisations or traditional communties are still problem-ridden.
These problems include difficulty in obtaining access to facilities, regulations and legal protection, as well as employing strategies to keep the organisation alive through self-subsistent methods. These problems reveal that infrastructure environment in arts and culture is less than ideal, and is yet to accommodate the size of its artistic potentials.
Arts and culture are inseparable from the state regulation system that is ministries. The general task of the ministries are to nurture certain sectors through establishing visions and missions, in order to reach equal development in those sectors.
In the arts and culture sector, the tasks fall into the hands of the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. The two ministries are, simply put, the peak bodies for the formulation of cultural policies in Indonesia. One of the vital instruments to analyze the Education Ministry and the Tourism and Creative Economy Ministry’s strategies and directions in developing arts and culture is the reading of budgets in both ministries. According to Glenn A Welsch (2000), budgets are related to basic management functions, including planning, coordinating and monitoring an organisation unit.
Budgets are used as a resource in a year’s predetermined activities and work plans. In other words, a ministry’s budget projects the government’s service for the people. An analysis of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy can thus reveal the structure, allocations, management philosophy and operational foundations of working programs related to strategic aims in both ministries.
The case study in this research are the annual budgets of The Ministry of Education and Culture and Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy between 2012 to 2013. The period was chosen because of the changes in ministrial structure due to the reshuffling of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s Indonesia Bersatu II cabinet on October 18 2011. This reshuffle led to the forming of strategies and policy directions in arts and culture to this day. The Ministry of National Education’s name was changed into the Ministry of of Education and Culture, and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism’s name was changed to the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. Those changes led to fundamental shifts in each Ministry’s functions, duties and principal policies, budget allocation included.
Specifically, this research will outline two things. First, to describe the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy’s budget estimates for arts and culture development. Second, to examine the performance of the two Ministries through their budget within the last two years. The data used is sourced from Budget Execution Document for Ministries/Institutions (DIPA/KL) and the Supreme Audit and Agency (BPK) during relevant years.
The paper “Culture Development – A Closer Look Into Arts and Culture State Budget” is the opening discourse of the series of researches by the Indonesian Arts Coalition on budget analysis in order to view the orientation of the national cultural policy. This paper will hopefully be used as a tool to monitor the government’s performance and encourage the improvement of budget management and policies in the arts and culture sector.